Thorns, Thistles and Prickles

list of spinescent species in the Israeli flora


  • Thorns are modified branches or stems.
  • Spines are modified leaves, stipules, or parts of leaves.
  • Prickles are more comparable to hairs, i.e. they are extensions of the cortex (the outer layer of the stem) and epidermis (the dermal tissue system of leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, and seeds).

  • see: Thorns and Thistles in the Bible


    Scientific name Family Name Spinescence
    Acacia farnesiana Mimosaceae stipules
    Acacia laeta Mimosaceae stipules
    Acacia pachyceras / gerrardii Mimosaceae stipules
    Acacia paradoxa Mimosaceae stipules
    Acacia raddiana Mimosaceae stipules
    Acacia tortilis Mimosaceae stipules
    Acantholimon libanoticum Plumbaginaceae leaves
    Acantholimon ulicinum Plumbaginaceae leaves
    Acanthus syriacus Acanthaceae bracts
    Achyranthes aspera Amaranthaceae flowers
    Ajuga chamaepytis Labiatae / Lamiaceae emergences
    Alhagi graecorum / maurorum Papilionaceae stems
    Alternanthera pungens Amaranthaceae flowers
    Amaranthus albus Amaranthaceae bracts
    Amaranthus palmeri Amaranthaceae flowers
    Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthaceae emergences
    Anchusa strigosa Boraginaceae emergences
    Argemone mexicana Papaveraceae leaves
    Asparagus acutifolius Liliaceae stems
    Asparagus aphyllus Liliaceae stems
    Asparagus horridus/stipularis Liliaceae stems
    Asparagus setaceus Liliaceae leaves
    Astragalus angustifolius Papilionaceae stems
    Astragalus bethlehemiticus Papilionaceae leaves
    Astragalus cephalotes Papilionaceae leaves
    Astragalus coluteoides Papilionaceae leaves
    Astragalus cruentiflorus Papilionaceae leaves
    Astragalus deinacanthus Papilionaceae leaves
    Astragalus echinus Papilionaceae leaves
    Astragalus gummifer Papilionaceae leaves
    Atractylis cancellata Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Atractylis carduus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Atractylis comosa Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Atractylis phaeolepis Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Atractylis prolifera Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Atractylis serratuloides Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Atraphaxis spinosa Polygonaceae stems
    Balanites aegyptiaca Zygophyllaceae stems
    Bassia muricata Chenopodiaceae flowers
    Berberis cretica Berberidaceae emergences
    Bidens pilosa Compositae / Asteraceae fruits
    Bidens tripartita Compositae / Asteraceae fruits
    Blepharis attenuata/ciliaris Acanthaceae leaves
    Calicotome villosa Papilionaceae stems
    Capparis aegyptica Capparaceae stipules
    Capparis cartilaginea / sinaica Capparaceae stipules
    Capparis decidua Capparaceae stipules
    Capparis sicula Capparaceae stipules
    Capparis zoharyi Capparaceae stipules
    Cardopatium corymbosum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Carduncellus eriocephalus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Carduus acicularis Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Carduus argentatus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Carduus australis Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Carduus getulus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Carlina curetum Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Carlina lanata Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Carlina libanotica Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Carlina racemosa Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Carthamus glaucus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Carthamus nitidus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Carthamus persicus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Carthamus tenuis Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Cenchrus echinatus Gramineae / Poaceae bracts
    Cenchrus incertus Gramineae /Poaceae bracts
    Centaurea aegyptiaca Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea ammocyanus Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea ascalonica Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea balsamita Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea behen Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea crocodylium Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea drabifolia Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea eriophora Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea eryngioides Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea hyalolepis Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea iberica Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea lanulata Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea onopordifolia Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Centaurea pallescens Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea pallescens Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea pumilio Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea rigida Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea scoparia Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea sinaica Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea solstitialis Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea speciosa Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Centaurea verutum Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Cerasus prostata Rosaceae stems
    Cirsium alatum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Cirsium gaillardotii Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Cirsium phyllocephalum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Cirsium vulgare Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Cnicus benedictus Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Cornulaca monacantha Chenopodiaceae leaves , flowers
    Cousinia hermonis Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Cousinia libanotica Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Cousinia moabitica Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Crataegus aronia Rosaceae stems
    Crataegus azorolus Rosaceae stems
    Crataegus monogyna Rosaceae stems
    Crepis aspera Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , emergences
    Crypsis vaginiflora Gramineae / Poaceae bracts
    Cynara syriaca Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Datura ferox Solanaceae fruits
    Daucus aureus Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Daucus broteri Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Daucus carota Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Daucus durieua Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Daucus glaber Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Daucus guttatus Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Daucus jordanicus Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Desmostachya bipinnata Gramineae /Poaceae leaves
    Dipsacus laciniatus Dipsacaceae bracts, emergences
    Echinops adenocaulos Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Echinops gaillardotii Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Echinops glaberrimus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Echinops philistaeus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Echinops polyceras Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Echinops viscosus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Echium rauwolfii Boraginaceae emergences
    Elaeagnus angustifolia Elaeagnaceae emergences
    Emex spinosa Polygonaceae fruits
    Eryngium barrelieri Umbelliferae / Apiaceae leaves , bracts
    Eryngium billardierei Umbelliferae / Apiaceae leaves , flowers
    Eryngium bourgatii Umbelliferae / Apiaceae leaves , flowers
    Eryngium creticum Umbelliferae / Apiaceae leaves , bracts
    Eryngium falcatum Umbelliferae / Apiaceae leaves , bracts
    Eryngium glomeratum Umbelliferae / Apiaceae leaves , bracts
    Eryngium maritimum Umbelliferae / Apiaceae leaves , bracts
    Euphorbia erinacea Euphorbiaceae stems
    Exoacantha heterophylla Umbelliferae / Apiaceae bracts
    Fagonia arabica Zygophyllaceae stipules
    Fagonia bruguieri Zygophyllaceae stipules
    Fagonia glutinosa Zygophyllaceae stipules
    Fagonia mollis Zygophyllaceae stipules
    Fagonia scabra Zygophyllaceae stipules
    Fagonia tenuifolia Zygophyllaceae stipules
    Faidherbia albida Mimosaceae stipules
    Forsskaolea tenacissima Urticaceae emergences
    Genista fasselata Papilionaceae stems
    Genista libanotica Papilionaceae stems
    Glycyrrhiza echinata Papilionaceae fruits
    Gundelia tournefortii Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Hedysarum spinosissimum Papilionaceae fruits
    Helminthotheca echioides Compositae / Asteraceae emergences
    Hyoscyamus albus Solanaceae flowers
    Hyoscyamus desertorum Solanaceae flowers
    Hyoscyamus pusillus Solanaceae flowers
    Hyoscyamus reticulatus Solanaceae flowers
    Hyphaene thebaica Palmae leaves
    Iphiona mucronata Compositae / Asteraceae leaves
    Iphiona scabra Compositae / Asteraceae leaves
    Juncus acutus Juncaceae leaves
    Juncus maritimus Juncaceae leaves
    Juncus rigidus ( Juncaceae leaves
    Juncus subulatus Juncaceae leaves
    Lactuca aculeata Compositae / Asteraceae emergences
    Lactuca orientalis Compositae / Asteraceae stems
    Lantana camara Verbenaceae emergences
    Launaea spinosa Compositae / Asteraceae stems
    Lepidium spinosum Cruciferae / Brassicaceae stems
    Lisaea strigosa Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Lycium europaeum Solanaceae stems
    Lycium depressum Solanaceae stems
    Lycium schweinfurthii Solanaceae stems
    Lycium shawii Solanaceae stems
    Marrubium alysson Labiatae / Lamiaceae flowers
    Medicago murex Papilionaceae fruits
    Minuartia juniperina Caryophyllaceae leaves
    Moluccella laevis Labiatae / Lamiaceae bracts
    Moluccella spinosa Labiatae / Lamiaceae flowers
    Neurada procumbens Neuradaceae fruits
    Nitraria retusa Zygophyllaceae stems
    Nitraria schoberi Zygophyllaceae stems
    Noaea mucronata Chenopodiaceae stems
    Notobasis syriaca Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Onobrychis caput-galli Papilionaceae fruits
    Onobrychis cornuta Papilionaceae stems
    Onobrychis crista-galli Papilionaceae fruits
    Onobrychis squarrosa Papilionaceae fruits
    Ononis spinosa Papilionaceae stems
    Onopordum alexandrinum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Onopordum ambiguum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Onopordum anisacanthum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Onopordon blamcheanum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Onopordum carduiforme Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Onopordum cynarocephalum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Onopordum floccosum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Onopordum jordanicolum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Onopordum macrocephalum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Onopordum palaestinum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Orlaya daucoides Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Paliurus spina-christi Rhamnaceae stipules
    Pallenis spinosa Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Parkinsonia aculeata Caesalpiniaceae stipules
    Phlomis pungens Labiatae / Lamiaceae flowers
    Phoenix dactylifera Palmae leaves
    Phragmites frutescens Gramineae /Poaceae leaves
    Picnomon acarna Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Prosopis farcta Mimosaceae emergences
    Prunus ursina Rosaceae stems
    Pseudorlaya pumila Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Pteranthus dichotomus Caryophyllaceae fruits
    Ptilostemon chamaepeuce Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Ptilostemon diacantha Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Pyrus syriaca Rosaceae stems
    Quercus calliprinos Fagaceae leaves
    Rhamnus lycioides Rhamnaceae stems
    Rhamnus disperma Rhamnaceae stems
    Rhamnus punctata Rhamnaceae stems
    Rhus pentaphylla Anacardiaceae stems
    Rhus tripartita Anacardiaceae stems
    Robinia pseudoacacia Papilionaceae stipules
    Rosa canina Rosaceae emergences
    Rosa phoenicia Rosaceae emergences
    Rosa pulverulenta Rosaceae emergences
    Rubus canescens Rosaceae emergences
    Rubus sanguineus Rosaceae emergences
    Ruscus aculeatus Asparagaceae stems
    Sageretia thea Rhamnaceae stems
    Salsola tragus / kali Chenopodiaceae leaves
    Sarcopoterium spinosum Rosaceae stems
    Sclerocephalus arabicus Caryophyllaceae fruits
    Scolymus hispanicus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Scolymus maculatus Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Serratula pusilla Compositae / Asteraceae bracts
    Sida spinosa Malvaceae stipules
    Sideritis montana Labiatae / Lamiaceae flowers
    Sideritis remota Labiatae / Lamiaceae flowers
    Silybum marianum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Smilax aspera Liliaceae emergences
    Solanum cornutum Solanaceae leaves , flowers
    Solanum elaeagnifolium Solanaceae emergences
    Solanum incanum Solanaceae emergences
    Teucrium spinosum Labiatae / Lamiaceae stems , flowers
    Torilis arvensis Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Torilis gaillardotii Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Torilis japonica Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Torilis leptophylla Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Torilis nodosa Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Torilis tenella Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Torilis webbii Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Tribulus bimucronatus Zygophyllaceae fruits
    Tribulus macropterus Zygophyllaceae fruits
    Tribulus mollis Zygophyllaceae fruits
    Tribulus pentandrus Zygophyllaceae fruits
    Tribulus terrestris Zygophyllaceae fruits
    Trichodesma africana Boraginaceae emergences
    Trichodesma ehrenbergii Boraginaceae emergences
    Trifolium scabrum Papilionaceae flowers
    Turgenia latifolia Umbelliferae / Apiaceae fruits
    Urtica kioviensis Urticaceae emergences
    Urtica membranacea Urticaceae emergences
    Urtica pilulifera Urticaceae emergences
    Urtica urens Urticaceae emergences
    Washingtonia filifera Palmae leaves
    Washingtonia robusta Palmae leaves
    Xanthium italicum Compositae / Asteraceae fruits
    Xanthium spinosum Compositae / Asteraceae fruits
    Xanthium strumarium Compositae / Asteraceae fruits
    Xeranthemum cylindraceum Compositae / Asteraceae leaves , bracts
    Zilla spinosa Cruciferae Brassicaceae stems
    Ziziphus lotus Rhamnaceae stipules
    Ziziphus nummularia Rhamnaceae stipules
    Ziziphys spina-christi Rhamnaceae stipules


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